The First Freedoms
The Privacy Amendments
The 5th Amendment
The 6th Amendment
Civil Trials
The Interpretive Rules

9th Amendment

The 9th Amendment in Summary

The 9th Amendment was adopted in order to address a particular and heated controversy that arose during the ratifying debates: how can we draft a bill of rights that will not imply that this enumeration of rights is exhaustive nor that it supplants an enumeration of powers? Soon after it was adopted, it quickly fell into obscurity, as virtually no court cases paid any attention to the 9th Amendment. Recently, however, the 9th Amendment has risen from the ashes on the wings of fresh controversy. Now the question is: should the Court interpret the 9th Amendment as a mandate to define and defend unenumerated rights, both against the states and the federal government?